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Introduction

In our life, we apply the defined principles and processes of science to get solutions to our minor and major problems, and then we call it technology. We use technology in our daily routine to get assistance and guidance in almost everything. Keeping this very simple, biotechnology is considered as the application technology which is based on the biology principles.

What is Biology?

Biology is the study of life according to scientific principles. The field is wide and has a range of differentiated sub sciences based on their natures.

Meaning

The word ‘Biology’ was taken from Greek language, two words were taken and combined. First word was ‘bios’ which means life and the next word was ‘logos’ which means ‘study’.

Around the globe, biologists in different regions study and research about the functions, origin, growth, structure, evolution and distribution of the living things and organisms.

Major Types

Generally, there are nine major fields coming under biology. All of them certainly have quite a number or subfields coming under them. The main fields are:

  • Biochemistry: it is the study of the material substances that make up living things
  • Physiology: it deals with the study of the functions of organisms and their sub parts
  • Botany: the study of plants along with the study of agriculture
  • Zoology: it is the study of animals and the animal behavior
  • Evolutionary biology: it is the study of the origins of the living beings and the changes in the diversity of their life over time
  • Cellular biology: it is the study of the basic cellular units of living things in detail
  • Genetics: the study of heredity and inheritance
  • Ecology: the study of how organisms interact with their habitat and environment
  • Molecular biology: it deals with the study of biological molecules found anywhere

What is Biotechnology?

Abbreviated mostly as ‘biotech’, Biotechnology is majorly the concept of broad area in biology. It includes the biology of living being systems and also the organisms on how we can make products out of them. It is commonly defined as;

The technical applications done on the basis of derivatives of and also the biological systems and living organisms in order to make certain products and processes for specific use.”

The biological processes, in biotechnology, of microorganisms are dated about 6000 years ago in the history. These processes are useful for the production of food items like: bread, cheese, yogurt, butter, ghee and other preservations of dairy items.

Present Day or Modern Biotechnology

The current biotechnology is doing some amazing wonders. It provides the breakthrough products through the technology in order to eradicate the deadly and dangerous diseases which happen rarely but effect badly.

Biotechnology, today, is also striving to reduce the environmental footprint, to feed the ones who are hungry, to use cleaner and less energy raw materials. The major aim of biotech sector is to produce safer and cleaner products coming from industrial processes of efficient manufacturing.

On this day, we can easily list more than 200-300 biotech products being used for the health care purposes. These products are more like vaccines which are available to the patients which can treat the previous diseases which were declared untreatable back then.

Agricultural Biotechnology

Agricultural biotechnology is also a latest invention of the late 20th century. More than 14 million farmers are using the latest agri based technology to increase their yearly yields. The other major reasons of agricultural biotechnology and its modern inventions are:

  • Prevention of damage to crops from the pests and insects
  • Reduction of the farming impacts over the environment

These products are not just manufactured. They are tested from the America’s best laboratories. About 50 bio refineries were built across the United States. They refine the technologies and also test them to process the production of biofuels and biochemical products from the renewable biomass. This will result in the reduction and prevention of the greenhouse radioactive gas emissions.

Major Purposes of Biotechnology

The recent advancements made in the biotechnology sector help prepare the biologist to conquer the most pressing challenges of the present day society. Let us explore how:

Healing the Whole World

Biotechnology is working for the biology enthusiasts to heal this planet. Biotechnology is doing so by harnessing nature's own toolbox. It is using the genetic makeup to heal and guide the field lines of research by:

  • Reducing the rates of various infections
  • Saving the lives of millions of children daily
  • Changing the harms conditions that are a threat for life, which are seriously affecting millions of people around the globe
  • Giving out the treatments to the patients to reduce the health problems and risk along with it, they are treating the side effects too
  • Creating more accuracy based efficient tools detect the diseases
  • Battling with the fatal illnesses along with the everyday upcoming threats coming to the planet earth

Fuel the Whole World

The biological processes are being used by the biotechnology such as the fermentation and harnessing of the biocatalysts. These biocatalysts are mostly yeast, enzymes and microbes so that production of microscopic manufacturing plants are produced.

Biotech is being used to fuel the whole world with the following measures:

  • To streamline each step of the process of chemical manufacturing by 80% and even more

  • By lowering the temperature while cleaning clothes in order to save an annual of $4.1 billion

  • By improving the efficiency of manufacturing process in order to save about more than 50% on the operating costs

  • By reducing dependencies on the petrochemicals and their use

  • To use the biofuels in order to cut the emission of greenhouse gases by 52%

  • Decreasing the unnecessary water usages to save for the upcoming generations

  • By getting on to the top limit of the traditional waste products made of biomass.

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